One thing is certain: this agreement will not be enough to limit the average temperature of global warming to 2 degrees Celsius, let alone the 1.5 degrees Celsius temperature that the agreement itself considers necessary. However, for domestic policy reasons in most countries and in the current geopolitical reality, this is the best deal we have been able to reach. That is why we cannot place all our hope in such an international agreement and action must be taken at all levels at which we are all involved. Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane are gases that accumulate in the atmosphere and prevent radiation from the Earth`s surface to space, creating what is called the greenhouse effect. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the main international panel on this issue, the concentration of these thermal gases has increased significantly since pre-industrial times and has not been observed for at least 800,000 years. Carbon dioxide (the main cause of climate change) has increased by 40 per cent, nitrous oxide by 20 per cent and methane by 150 per cent since 1750, mainly due to the burning of dirty fossil fuels. The IPCC says it is “extremely likely” that these emissions have been primarily responsible for the rise in global temperatures since the 1950s. Meanwhile, deforestation and forest degradation have also contributed to their fair share of global carbon emissions. The president`s promise to renegotiate the international climate agreement has always been a smokescreen, the oil industry has a red phone at the Home Office, and will Trump bring food trucks to Old Faithful? InDCs become CNDs – nationally determined contributions – as soon as a country formally adheres to the agreement. There are no specific requirements as to how or how many countries should reduce emissions, but there were political expectations about the nature and rigour of the targets set by different countries. As a result, the scale and ambition of national plans vary widely, largely reflecting each country`s capacity, level of development and contribution to emissions over time.
China, for example, has committed to cleaning up its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reducing CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% by 2030 from 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels by 2030 and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels. The Paris Agreement brings a great historical change. This is due to its universality, which applies to all nations. This is also due to the fact that the agreement clearly shows all concerned that the world is moving towards a paradigm that integrates the reality of the fight against climate change. This is already reflected on the stock markets – in the days following the adoption of this agreement, stock market movements have already shown a shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. Although this agreement is weak and has many flaws, it is the best outcome we can expect from all the governments of the world. It is far from perfect and sufficient to combat climate change, but it is a good step forward. Implementation of the agreement by all Member States will be evaluated every five years, with the first evaluation in 2023.
The result will be used as an input for new national contributions from Member States.  The inventory will not be national contributions/achievements, but a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what remains to be done. While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only pro